The Concurrent Training Effect Blog #3

To read the first two installments please see the ALN blog page here: http://atlargenutrition.com/blog/

The Concurrent Training Effect Blog #3

As noted in our first installment, the concurrent training effect is a mitigation or cessation of the hypertrophy response to strength training when both strength and endurance training are performed concurrently.  Now that we understand mTORC1 (from blog #2) is almost exclusively the driver of strength training induced hypertrophy we know that looking into how endurance training can influence it is the key to insight into how to mitigate the concurrent training effect and thus to creating a superior CrossFitter or hybrid athlete.

marathon

In this blog we are going to seek a better understanding of how endurance training can effect mTORC1.  The molecular effects of endurance training on hypertrophy are much more equivocal than the molecular effects of strength training.  There is no single molecular source for the manner in which endurance training can or does effect hypertrophy.  This blog will focus on those sources most generally accepted to have the greatest impact.

We will begin with AMPK (adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase).  Endurance training of sufficient intensity results in metabolic and molecular responses that activate AMPK.  AMPK has been shown in animal studies to be able to inhibit mTORC1.  In humans its effects on mTORC1 are less certain, but overall the scientific consensus is that it (a specific form of it) likely contributes to the concurrent training effect.

Our next focus is on the sirtuin family of NAD+ dependent deacetylases with SIRT1 being of primary interest.  In the previous paragraph it was noted that the intensity of endurance exercise is a controlling factor in AMPK activation.  The same is true for SIRT1.  The presence of SIRT1 has been clearly demonstrated to inhibit mTORC1, thus the effects on mTORC1 of relatively frequent intense endurance training may due fully, or in part, to SIRT1.

The final possible metabolic cause of the effect of endurance training on mTORC1 to be covered in this blog are unfolded proteins.  Intense and frequent endurance training and high fat diets are both triggers for unfolded proteins.  The body’s response to increased unfolded proteins includes the blocking of protein synthesis via a decrease in mTORC1 activity.

Hopefully you have already noted the fact that the intensity and frequency of endurance training are catalysts in each of the above possible metabolic pathways in which endurance training can effect mTORC1.  This fact will be the focus of our next blog when we take the information from the first three blogs and use it to propose specific training protocols which can mitigate, and even nearly eliminate, the concurrent training effect.

The Concurrent Training Effect Blog #2

This 2nd edition of The Concurrent Training Effect blog is going to focus on the molecular underpinnings of skeletal muscular hypertrophy.  Understanding the driving force behind the molecular response to strength training can provide us insight into why concurrent strength and endurance training can negatively affect muscular hypertrophy and strength.  In addition, a better understanding can lead to ways to mitigate the effect and optimize progress.  If you are a CrossFitter, or any other form of hybrid athlete this blog is for you.  Keep reading…

Mike Mentzer - knew a thing or two about muscular hypertrophy.
Mike Mentzer – knew a thing or two about muscular hypertrophy.

A Very Cursory Overview of the Science:

The currently agreed upon molecular key to skeletal muscular hypertrophy is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).  mTOR exists in two complexes with mTORC1 as the type associated with muscular hypertrophy.  mTOR is most commonly activated via growth factors, but with strength training its activation is executed in an entirely different fashion.  An unknown kinase gets activated causing a chemical cascade resulting in the potent stimulation of mTORC1.

Mechanical kinase activation is the not the only manner in which strength training stimulates mTOR.  We have all heard of the post-workout anabolic window for nutrient consumption.  The following molecular explanation is THE reason the post-workout window has been so widely touted (and misrepresented equally as often) in the fitness world.

After an intense training session (and for several hours) the skeletal muscles pull a significantly greater amount of the amino acids leucine and glutamine from the blood.  The leucine individually is a potent activator mTORC1 and augments the previously mentioned kinase based mTORC1 activation.  The increased glutamine yet again enhances this synergistic effect as the resultant transport of glutamine out of the muscle further up-regulates leucine intake.

Start and Finish provide both leucine and glutamine (as well as other great stuff).
Start and Finish provide both leucine and glutamine (as well as other great stuff).

The Bottom Line

Bottom line, and there is a lot more to it than described here, the end game for strength training induced muscular hypertrophy is it is almost totally dependent on mTORC1.  One can thus reasonably deduct that endurance training can somehow blunt mTORC1 activation, and or its ability once activated to execute its normal spike in protein synthesis and the resultant muscular hypertrophy.

The next installment of The Concurrent Training Effect blog will focus on the manner(s) with which endurance training may effect mTORC1.

Three Things You Should Be Doing in 2016

three things you should be doing

Most people reading this have one or more social media accounts and will be bombarded by lists of things NOT to do in 2016, but I want to start the year on a positive note, so this blog is going to focus on three things you should be doing in 2016.

1) Whether you are just beginning to train or are a seasoned veteran, make 2016 the year that you focus on perfecting form/technique for every exercise you practice.

Strength training is my first love so I will speak to that, but the principle is equally applicable to any movement or exercise.

Strength training and the heavy loads inherent to it can wreak havoc on your joints and connective tissues, but use of proper form/technique can greatly mitigate and even eliminate said damage.

Nearly all strength-trained athletes incorporate the barbell bench press and back squat into their strength training regimen. Bad technique and crap form are the norm even at the highest professional levels (read NBA, NFL  etc.).  While this concept may boggle the mind, I can only assume it is ill-informed coaches/trainers who either don’t teach or refuse to enforce proper technique with their athletes.

A note of caution to the young and those whose hubris may cloud their ability to be objective: the fact you have done something a certain way for a prolonged period and not yet experienced injury does NOT indicate you will continue with your current streak of luck. Sure, some people have nearly superhuman connective tissue and or more advantageous anatomical leverages such that they can get away with poor form.  Some of these people are even top-tier athletes, and thus someone that others will want to mimic in the hopes of achieving even a modicum of their success.  Chances are very good you are NOT like them.  Change your evil ways before they catch up to you :).

I am a huge fan of Louie Simmons, strength coach extraordinaire, inventor, entrepreneur and one hell of a strength athlete (Louie’s company site is www.westside-barbell.com). One of Louie’s finest proteges is Laura Phelps Sweatt. Laura and her trainer husband Shane own gyms and work with athletes worldwide. Laura herself is one of the most dominant strength athletes ever. She has set so many all-time powerlifting records it boggles the mind. One of the things I have always admired about Laura is her literally flawless execution of virtually every strength training movement. If you want to learn correct form, you either consult with her, or at the very least watch her videos.

Below are two videos of Laura demonstrating first the box squat and then the barbell bench press.

A quick note on the box squat: if you strength train the box squat should make up the majority of your squat training (unless you are an Olympic lifter). The box squat is safer and just as effective as any back squat variety.  It’s safety advantage lies in the physics of the movement. Less stress is placed on the knee joints.

This is Laura demonstrating good and bad form for the box squat (with me narrating):

I encourage you to search for more videos with Shane and Laura and to visit Louie’s site to learn all you can about proper form.

2) Make sure your diet best meets your needs.

Don’t get caught up in the fad diet of the moment especially if it does not help you to meet your goals.  For instance, a “Paleo” based diet is not an optimal performance diet.  Paleo style diets as a rule lack the carbs needed for top performance and recovery by athletes who require strength and endurance.

Consume a diet which consists of foods which are as minimally processed as is reasonably possible, are varied in makeup, and has a macronutrient content that best supports your physical goals.

3) More is NOT better, better is better :).

The above concept is true universally when it comes to training, but especially so regarding strength training. Training volume and intensity are inversely correlated.  If you train with higher volume, intensity must be reduced and vice versa. Before you “there is no such thing as overtraining” nuts get all riled up, the data on this phenomena is overwhelming and virtually indisputable EVEN for doped athletes.

Why strength training volume and intensity are inversely correlated is equivocal. The prevailing theory proffers that the nervous system is the limiting factor and increased intensity stresses the nervous system to a greater and greater degree. Whatever the reason, if you want to be successful, especially over time, moderating your high intensity training volume is key.

Now, get offline and get to the gym and make 2016 your best physical accomplishment year ever!

THREE TRAINING MYTHS TO AVOID IN THE NEW YEAR

1) You need to foam roll, stretch, and God knows what else to warm-up prior to training.

NO!  Was that clear enough?  Crushing your flesh, fatiguing yourself with endless repetitions etc. will NOT decrease your chances of injury, nor will it enhance performance.  With strength training, exercise specific warm-ups are all that are needed.  If you are going to squat then a couple of sets of squats will give your body the movement specific warm-up it needs.  If you feel you need more you are doing something wrong.  Your training is damaging your joints and changes must be made.

By the way, for other sporting activities and less intensive exercise the same principal holds true.  An “easy” version of said activity to get started will be more the sufficient to prepare the athlete for the increased intensity of activity to come.

Gee, this will make ALL the difference in your training session...
Gee, this will make ALL the difference in your training session…

One final note, I am not calling all such activities worthless.  I am specifically referring to timing.  If you feel said activities help you with mobility and recovery then by all means do them, but don’t do them immediately before training.

2) If you don’t go all out, psyching yourself out of your mind and pushing yourself beyond fatigue with every training session you are wasting your time.

Nothing could be further from the truth.  Training like that will quickly lead to stagnation, overtraining, and eventually injury and or regression.  The majority of one’s training should be done in a non-elevated psychological state.

Does that mean training should be light or easy?  Heck no!  Training should not be easy, nor should it wipe you out.  Met-Con based athletes, bodybuilders, and powerlifters take heed, killing yourself might make you look cool and even be beneficial in the short term, but you will not reach your goals if you don’t modulate the intensity and volume of your training.

Mike Mentzer - the right combination of intensity of effort and volume can lead to some very impressive results.
Mike Mentzer – the right combination of intensity of effort and volume can lead to some very impressive results.

3) Training for “stability” will improve your functional fitness.

This is one of the STUPIDEST and WORST myths…  Squatting on a Bosu Ball will NOT improve anything other than your ability to squat on a Bosu Ball.  Adaptation, or response to training stimuli is extremely specific.  If you want to get better at a specific activity practice that specific activity.  Use strength training to either increase the general force production capacity of the musculature you are training, or to get better at a specific lift for competition purposes.  If I see you doing any kind of balance crap while strength training I will be forced to slap you silly…  Thank you.

This goof seems to be working "stability" AND foam rolling...
This goof seems to be working “stability” AND foam rolling…

 

Chris Mason

Author Chris Mason is the owner of AtLarge Nutrition, LLC and an accomplished author in the fitness genre. He has written for numerous websites and magazines.

STRENGTH TRAINING ON A LIMITED SCHEDULE

For the past couple of years the amount of time I can commit to training has been severely curtailed. My business life literally runs from about 8:15 A.M. to 9 P.M. (or later) six days per week. I have thus been relegated to primarily training on Wednesday evenings and Sunday mornings (I will sometimes get in late mini-workouts in my basement).

As you may know I am a huge advocate of Louie Simmons’ Westside training methodologies (www.westside-barbell.com). The Westside program when properly adhered to calls for at least four training days per week. Mini workouts to add additional volume (especially for weak points) are also indicated and can be done on otherwise “off” days. Following this protocol is optimal, but not viable due to work and other life considerations for many individuals interested in increasing their absolute size, strength, or both.

I don’t promote excuses or weakness. Many people who claim they can only find the time to train once or twice per week simply lack the will to do what must be done. With that said, there are some people who truly cannot devote more time to their training and yet want to see results. For those of you who are in this category, take heart, it CAN be done. In fact, it has been done at the highest level. I remember reading some time ago that one of the greatest strength athletes in history, Jon Cole, trained twice per week at his peak. Jon set powerlifting records that stood for 40 years!

Jon Cole
Jon Cole, one of the strongest men who ever lived.

If Jon did it, so can YOU. Well, not set records that stand for 40 years, but get darn big and strong training only twice per week. The key is the right mix of intensity, volume, and exercise selection.

For the purposes of this article I am going to focus on a blend of size and strength. What follows will provide you the information you need to train twice per week and add both lean muscle mass and strength.

Total Body Sessions

When your training time is limited to two sessions per week it is imperative that you hit all of the major muscle groups each session. Training the total body in one session requires a low volume of work by body part. As the target reader of this article has a severely curtailed amount of training time, the length of a given session is necessarily short. Even if one had more time, sessions much in excess of an hour have been shown to produce diminishing returns (hormonal and other considerations being the presumed culprits). The good news is that despite what you may have read and heard, given a proper level of intensity and mix of rep schemes etc. the actual amount of volume required to add size and strength is much less than commonly accepted.

Prescribed volume for the vast majority of trainees on a twice per week system is 2-5 working sets by body part/group. Working sets are defined as post-warm-up work. See below for more specific recommendations:

Chest – 3-5 sets
Upper back – 3-5 sets
Whole body movements such as squats and deadlifts – 2-5 sets
Accessory work – 2-4 sets

Each of the above sets should be taken to near concentric failure (concentric failure defined as the inability to complete a rep). Rep counts should be varied targeting absolute strength with reps in the 1-3 range, and then following up with higher repetitions to promote growth of the contractile myofibrils and conditioning/thickening of the connective tissues. Here is a sample chest workout to illustrate this concept:

* Only working sets will be noted. The set and rep scheme will be presented in this fashion – 4 x 3/3/12/12 – this indicates four working sets of 3 reps for the first and second sets to be followed by 12 reps each for the third and fourth sets.

Floor Press: 3 x 1/5/12
Incline Press: 2 x 8/15

In the case above the floor press is the primary movement of the day. After an appropriate (specific to the individual) warm-up the first working set is a training one rep maximum/near maximum (max) attempt. A training one rep max attempt by definition involves very little psychological stimulation. In other words, the lifter doesn’t get “crazy” for the attempt. He or she simply concentrates and handles a very heavy load in a calm state. Training singles should consist primarily of such attempts as excessively psyched max attempts are very draining in general, to the nervous system in particular, and can quickly lead to training stagnation.

A heavy training single is very important to, if not optimal for, the building of maximal strength. The ability to move a near maximal load for one repetition requires neural optimization relative to the specific movement pattern and loading. While multiple repetitions can and do build absolute strength (up to a point), only heavy single attempts can optimally stimulate the adaptation required to maximize absolute strength. This is the S.A.I.D. (Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demand) principle in practice. Human physical adaptation is highly specific and the neural coordination required to move a maximal load through a specific movement pattern can only be peaked with single repetition practice (yes, repeated for emphasis…).

Absolute strength is a combination of neural optimization and the force production capacity of the contractile myofibrils (actin and myosin – the contractile components of skeletal muscle). Maximal individual demonstrable strength is thus achieved via a combination of contractile hypertrophy and neural adaptation. This is the reason for the combination of both heavy singles and moderate and higher repetitions. Moderate reps (4-8 or so) target both maximal strength and hypertrophy while higher reps stimulate what is commonly referred to as non-contractile hypertrophy (hypertrophy of the non-contractile elements of muscle fibers) and the maintenance/hypertrophy of the very important connective tissues. The importance of the repetition blend cannot be overemphasized.

To clarify the force production capacity statement, the contractile components of the muscles cells are known as the aforementioned myofibrils actin and myosin. Individually speaking, the larger the myofibrils the greater the force production capacity, but greater capacity does not automatically equate to greater expressed strength. A automotive analogy is appropriate to illustrate the concept. With an automobile engine and transmission the transmission is required to take the force production capacity of the engine and translate it to the wheels so the car will move. In the body the nervous system is loosely analogous to the automobile transmission and the myofibrils to the engine. The myofibrils need to have the capacity for high force production and the nervous system must orchestrate everything in one of life’s most beautiful symphonies, the symphony of physical expression.

Want the laymen’s translation? If you want to be really strong make your muscles big and practice heavy singles…

Varying Movements and Intensity

Followers of Westside know that exercise variety is one of the cornerstones of the program. Maximum Effort movements are varied weekly by cycling through 3-4 primary movements. Twice per week trainees should approach things a bit differently. The reduced volume dictated by the program changes the paradigm such that repetition of the same movement is beneficial, at least for a longer period of time than with a standard Westside protocol.

The legend Louie Simmons holding court.
The legend Louie Simmons holding court.

Westside switches Max Effort (ME) movements weekly because Louie Simmons’ research led him to the conclusion that it is optimal for the vast majority of those practicing his program. The higher the level the athlete, the less frequently a one rep max attempt can be made for the same movement. In practice, Louie observed that for most of his athletes the same movement one rep max cannot be repeated for more than 2-3 weeks before stagnation occurs. Weekly rotation proved to be superior as it permitted the most consistent progress with a minimization of injuries from overuse as an added benefit.

This brings us back to some specific verbiage I used earlier in this article. I noted the use of the training one rep max/near max. The reason for the inclusion of the “near max” terminology is that with my program the prescribed one rep max attempts differ from those practiced at Westside in that majority of them are lower in intensity. With my program instead of only one max effort weekly for either a bench or squat variation there are two such attempts. The performance of two very heavy singles per week dictates a reduction in intensity when compared to a true training one rep max. In practice I have found that doing so leads to more consistent progress.

Not to confuse the issue, but my program also relies on a degree of autoregulation. Performing two near max singles per week by body part weekly can overwhelm even those with above average recovery ability, so I encourage practitioners of my program to monitor their progress and make adjustments as needed. When I feel that my body is getting too beat up with heavy singles, and or stagnation sets in, I will switch to a higher rep scheme. In most cases only a week or two of less intense work is needed to right the ship.

A Sample Week of Training

Wednesday:

Rack pulls (from about 2″ off the floor): 1/5
Floor press: 1/5

Giant Set (3 rounds)*:
Original Nautilus pullover: one arm at a time – 12 reps
Close grip pulldown: 10
Machine chest press: 15-20
Machine lateral raise: 10
* No rest is taken between exercises. The trainee moves as quickly as possible from one exercise to the next.

Scott Wilson
Bodybuilder Scott Wilson built those boulders with low volume and frequency.

Leg press: 15-20/15-20 – these are done using a rest pause style. Reps are continuous until fatigue demands a break and then the load is held at lockout just long enough to take a few deep breaths and to allow the burn to subside. A few more reps are then done until fatigue again demands a brief break. This is repeated 2-3 times per “set” until the target rep count is hit.

Overhead cable crunches: 20/20

Sunday:

Box squat with various bars: 1/5 (I will normally switch bars every 3rd-4th week)

Bench press with pause: 1/5

Giant Set (3 rounds):
Seated cable rows with the two handed rope attachment: 10
Seated machine chest press: 10
Machine lateral raise: 10
Seated Nautilus shoulder press: 10

Leg curl: 12/12/12

Triceps pushdowns: 1 set performed in a rest pause fashion for 15-25 reps. Choose a load which allows for 10-12 strict, unbroken reps.

Overhead cable crunches: 20/20

Wrap

You can get bigger and stronger training twice per week. Is it ideal? No, but if your schedule truly precludes a more expansive training regimen a twice per week program can and will be effective if properly executed.

No excuses, you can get bigger and stronger no matter what your life schedule looks like.

Chris Mason

Author Chris Mason is the owner of AtLarge Nutrition, LLC and an accomplished author in the fitness genre. He has written for numerous websites and magazines.

#TeamALN athlete Anna Khudayarov at the WRPF Pro World Championships

#Team ALN – AtLarge Nutrition female powerlifter extraordinaire Anna Khudayarov competed this past weekend in Russia at the WRPF Pro World Championships. She had the highest women’s total of the meet with the following lifts (raw with knees wraps):

Squat – 484 lbs
Bench – 281 lbs
Deadlift – 501 lbs

(R) Anna
(R) Anna

Anna K

POST-WORKOUT NUTRITION – KEEPING IT 100

                     POST-WORKOUT NUTRITION – KEEPING IT 100

Let’s talk about nutrition and supplementation as it relates to performance enhancement, but for a real change of pace let’s keep it 100.  Yes, I went there and used that term.  What of it? 😉

Larry Wilmore of the Nightly Show knows how to keep it 100!
Larry Wilmore of the Nightly Show knows how to keep it 100!

Supplement company owners and their proxy shills have written a LOT of information over the years on the topic, but the end game was almost invariably to promote their products via massively overstated claims of what would happen if you used them.  They most certainly were NOT keeping it 100…

Post-Workout

It has been touted for years that consuming protein after training is a necessity for improved and or optimized recovery.  This idea does have some merit, but it is not the entire truth.  It first came about as a result of protein supplement companies seizing upon research that showed consuming protein post-workout could more quickly place your body in an anabolic state, and additional research showing whey in particular can powerfully promote enhanced protein synthesis.

Drink a shake and you will look just like this guy. Errrr... maybe not...
Drink a shake and you will look just like this guy. Errrr… maybe not…

The thing about studies is that to be scientifically valid they have to be highly controlled.  The studies which show the most potent impact of post-workout consumption of protein were done with trainees who had fasted beforehand.  Most of them had fasted for 12 or more hours before an intense training session and then consumed the requisite amount of protein after the session was complete.  That is not how it goes in real life for the majority of trainees.  Sure, some train in a fasted state the first thing in morning, but the majority have consumed a meal, or several meals prior to their training session.  Most meals consumed in Western culture have a fair amount of fat content and will take 4-6 hours to be fully digested.  That means that amino acids from the foods consumed will be deposited into the bloodstream for roughly that period of time.

One of the reasons post-workout protein consumption is theorized to be effective is that it provides the substrate, or fuel (in the form of amino acids) for the enhanced protein synthesis environment which is realized after an intense training session.  Another reason is that specific amino acids such as leucine are know to be a catalyst for an enhancement of protein synthesis even beyond that already present in the post-workout state.  If said amino acids are already present in the bloodstream from a previously ingested meal will the consumption of additional protein make a meaningful difference?  The answer is probably not.  Probably not?  What is this heresy?

Fuel baby!
Fuel baby!

Bodybuilders and strength athletes in general have been brainwashed into believing they must ingest WAY more protein than needed in order to facilitate optimized recovery and potential super-compensation.  The truth of the matter is that barring a low calorie pre-contest diet in which a bodybuilder might be engaged, the vast majority of strength athletes consume more than enough protein in their daily diets and do NOT need to supplement them with additional protein.

This guy is probably brainwashed...
This guy is probably brainwashed…

So Why Does AtLarge Nutrition Sell Supplements?

If the above is true why do we sell protein supplements (Nitrean and Opticen Natural)?  I/we sell them because they DO have a purpose and use, it just isn’t what the industry has drilled into your minds for decades.  Protein supplements are a product of convenience.  They truly are a SUPPLEMENT to a sound diet and training routine.  Despite what I noted above I DO feel it is a good idea to consume protein (and carbohydrates) post-workout as a form of insurance that your body has what it needs to optimize recovery.  A protein shake is a great way to get that protein.  I don’t know about you, but after I bust my ass in the gym I’m not necessarily in the mood to eat right away, but consuming a shake is no problem.

Protein shakes also have value as the lowest calorie possible source of quality whole protein.  If you are on a calorically restricted diet a quality protein shake will thus provide a complete protein with minimized caloric content.  Incorporating such a shake into your diet can allow you to hit your daily macronutrient goals while concurrently consuming a more varied diet and thus potentially more healthful and satisfying fare.

What About Carbs?

Protein is not the only macronutrient which can help to optimize post-workout recovery.  Carbohydrates, a blend of quick, moderate, and slow absorbing with an emphasis on the quick is the best way to go.  The previously stated meal absorption argument still applies here, but perhaps to a slightly lesser degree.  What many individuals don’t know about carbohydrates and the post-workout environment, and this is especially true with the recent popularity of low carbohydrate diets, “Paleo” diets, and so on, is that carbohydrates and the insulin spike they can elicit serve multiple beneficial purposes after an intense training session.  First, the quick absorbing carbs you consume will provide nearly immediate substrate for glycogen replenishment.  Glycogen is a stored form of glucose in the muscles (and liver) and used to fuel intense training.  The replenishment of glycogen is considered to be integral to overall recovery, and the more quickly it occurs the better.  Second, quick absorbing carbs elicit a potent insulin response by the body.  Insulin is a highly anabolic hormone which can enhance recovery both by enhancing glycogen AND protein synthesis.  Its specific effect(s) on protein synthesis is equivocal, but at the very least it has a permissive effect.  Its effect on glycogen synthesis is incontrovertible, it essentially “supercharges” it.  End game, the presence of insulin in the post-workout physiological environment is profound as it further enhances the already enhanced synthesis of both protein and glycogen.  Anabolic state anyone?

What is the Take Home Message?

The take home message is the consumption of both protein and carbohydrates after an intense training session is a good idea and doing it with a shake is a convenient, and efficient way to do so.  In the case of my company and products the solution for post-workout shakes is Opticen Natural (which contains 30g of protein and roughly 41g of a carbohydrate blend), Nitrean Natural plus RESULTS 2.0, or Opticen Natural and RESULTS 2.0 for the athlete with higher carbohydrate requirements (endurance athletes etc.).

Nitrean Natural
Nitrean Natural

Do I want you to purchase and use AtLarge Nutrition’s products?  Heck yes I do, but I want you to do so for the right reasons, in the right way, and I want you to have a solid understanding of what is occurring in your body after you train.  I hope this short article has done just that.

 

 

Chris Mason

Chris Mason is the owner of AtLarge Nutrition, LLC and an accomplished author in the fitness genre. He has written for numerous websites and magazines.

Sequence Your Training for Optimal Results

Sequence Your Training for Optimal Results

by Chris Mason

With the recent massive increase in the popularity of training multiple fitness components simultaneously the topic of exercise sequencing for optimal results has become particularly poignant.

Physical fitness and performance are comprised of many different specific attributes. For example, strength has many forms all of which contribute to the body’s ability to move through space. Strength can be viewed as a spectrum ranging from starting strength (the ability to produce maximal force in the first 30 milliseconds of movement), to explosive strength (the ability to very quickly, albeit not quite as quickly as starting strength, generate a high degree of force), to maximal strength (the ability to volitionally produce the highest force possible). Muscular endurance, the ability to produce relatively low levels of force for prolonged periods, also has a strata with things like speed endurance and strength endurance.

Each attribute above and more must be trained in order to excel physically across a broad spectrum of performance markers. In short, you must get good at a lot of stuff to be a well-rounded athlete.

Bruce Jenner is definitely the most famous decathlete
Bruce Jenner is definitely the most famous decathlete

As training time is limited for most athletes those that seek to be all-around machines must organize their training to permit optimized adaptation to all physical traits which are being worked. If all, or multiple attributes are to be trained in a single session the order should be as follows:

1) Technique or skill work
2) Speed work
3) Strength work
3) Endurance work of all forms with speed endurance work being done first to be followed by lower intensity prolonged exercise

Following the order prescribed above will allow for maximized results within the confines of training multiple attributes in a single session. A similar order should be followed when training will target multiple attributes via individual sessions over the course of several days. Care must be taken in those situations to permit recovery of the nervous system after endurance work prior to the next skill, speed, and or strength session. Either a day or two of rest or active rest are recommended.

A Special Note about the Nervous System and Performance

Technique or skill work for athletics are generally understood to be essentially wholly a function of the nervous system. What is perhaps less generally well known is that strength and speed work are also almost exclusively the domain of the nervous system. They may be less known in the scientific sense, but we can all empirically appreciate it as each of us have tried, at one point or another, to perform a high intensity activity when already fatigued from a lower intensity effort and know the sense of a lack of coordination and explosiveness which are manifest at such times.

This gentleman exemplifies the neural dominance of demonstrable strength
This gentleman exemplifies the neural dominance of demonstrable strength

The Why

In a simplified nutshell, lower intensity prolonged activities exert a negative effect on the nervous system in the short and mid-term. They reduce coordination, increase reaction time, and increase the chance of injury when higher intensity activities succeed them prior to complete recovery.
There is a paucity of scientific explanation for the specific causes of this central nervous system fatigue (central fatigue). One generally agreed upon factor is an increase of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain. This is thought to occur due to an increase in brain levels of free tryptophan (f-TRP) which is an amino acid precursor for 5-HT production.

During prolonged exercise f-TRP transport across the blood brain barrier increases due to two main causes. One has to do with tryptophan and albumin. Tryptophan (TRP) binds to albumin in the blood. During endurance exercise, blood borne fatty acid levels increase. Fatty acids displace TRP from binding to albumin thus increasing f-TRP.
The other main cause relates to branched chain amino acids (BCAA). F-TRP (i.e. unbound TRP) competes with the BCAA for transport to the brain thus a decrease in circulating BCAA will result is more f-TRP being able to pass to the brain. Prolonged exercise decreases circulating BCAA as the skeletal muscles take them up and oxidize them for energy.

A Wrap

While the science as to the specific physiologic cause(s) of central fatigue is scant, there is no lack of scientific and empirical evidence verifying the existence of central fatigue as a result of prolonged endurance exercise. There is also no lack of scientific and empirical data verifying the proper sequencing of exercise for specific adaptations. Take care to properly sequence your training and you will permit the best results possible.

Chris Mason

Chris Mason is the owner of AtLarge Nutrition, LLC and an accomplished author in the fitness genre. He has written for numerous websites and magazines.

ANOTHER ATLARGE NUTRITION CUSTOMER TRANSFORMATION!

Another customer recently contacted us with their personal transformation story.  In his own words:

“Hey AtLarge , my name is Garrett Strout. I am a 19 year old amateur bodybuilder. I am 6’2 and 244 pounds.  I am currently prepping for a few competitions in 2015, hoping to do 3 next year. I should be walking on stage at about 210-220 pounds. I had a big transformation, I went from a 270 pound 15 year old who was bullied everyday to the bodybuilder I am today.  I am an avid user of many of your products. I’m ADDICTED to my BCAA+! !”

Going from a very out of shape 270 lbs 15 year old to a lean machine at 244 lbs is a great transformation Garrett!  Good look with your first bodybuilding shows.

Garrett showing off the guns!
Garrett showing off the guns!
Garrett hitting a rear double biceps
Garrett hitting a rear double biceps

PML for Optimized Injury Prevention & Repair by Chris Mason

Progressive Mechanical Loading for Injury Rehabilitation/Prevention

by Chris Mason

Progressive Mechanical Loading (PML) is a term I have coined to describe what I have found to be the most effective injury rehabilitation/prevention method in my nearly 30 years in the iron game.  PML is deceptively simple, but as Occam’s razor suggests, the most effective solutions need not always be overly complicated or exotic in nature.

Aristotle writes in his Posterior Analytics, “We may assume the superiority ceteris paribus [all things being equal] of the demonstration which derives from fewer postulates or hypotheses.”

PML involves the use of progressive resistance to condition tissue (skeletal muscular, connective, even osseous) to either prevent injury when the extreme forces of heavy loading or explosive training are employed, or when injury occurs, to facilitate a speedier and more complete recovery.

The incomparable Louie Simmons with one of his finest proteges, Laura Phelps Sweatt.
The incomparable Louie Simmons with one of his finest proteges, Laura Phelps Sweatt.

I first became aware of the the general concept from Louie Simmons (www.westside-barbell.com).  I had torn my right pec major relatively significantly and had called Louie to receive counsel.  In short, Louie told me to get back to benching almost immediately.  Start extremely light (use 20+ rep sets), use high frequency, and very gradually increase the loading over time.  I did exactly that, well almost exactly…  I probably started heavier than I should have using 95 lbs.  I think I did 9 reps the first time.  All I did was the one set and stopped at 9 reps because it literally felt like the pec was going to completely tear from the bone with each rep (which Louie had warned me would happen).  I moved the weight slowly with what can best be characterized as perfect form.  I did this daily trying to get more reps each time.  When I got to 20 reps I increased the load by 10 lbs and started over doing as many reps as possible.  After about four weeks of daily benching (one set each day) I went to benching every other day continuously trying to progress in reps and resistance.  When I got to the mid 200s for 20 reps I began to increase the loading and decrease the reps first doing sets of 12 and over the course of a few more weeks moving down to sets of 5-8 reps and so on.

Scott Mendelson sporting a significantly worse pec tear than me :)
Scott Mendelson sporting a significantly worse pec tear than me 🙂

The method worked, and worked very well.  I believe it resulted both in faster and superior healing of the injury.  I am now benching more than ever and have not experienced lingering problems from the injury.  There is science to back the concept.  My buddy Shaun did some post-graduate research at the University of Virginia (10 minutes from my home).  The focus of his research was the regeneration of connective tissue.  Convenient, eh?  To make a long story short we were out having a drink one night at a local university haunt called Boylan Heights.  Well, maybe more than one drink…. Anyway, while discussing the topic he told me about research which showed that when the skeletal muscle associated with damaged (in this case I believe it was a partially severed tendon) connective tissue is mechanically stressed it causes a chemical cavalcade which results in increased signaling for the repair of the damaged tissue.  This information simply reinforced what I had discovered empirically.  Rest for an injury is not ideal, rather mechanical loading of the tissue such that the injury is not exacerbated, but the tissue is still sufficiently stimulated to more aggressively repair itself, is what leads to optimized recovery.

Even 400 lbs giants like Rich Williams have to be careful when trying novel, or infrequently used exercises.
Even 400 lbs giants like Rich Williams have to be careful when trying novel, or infrequently used exercises.

I mentioned in the beginning of this article that PML can be used for both injury repair and prevention.  For injury prevention a modified version of the technique is employed.  In the spirit of full disclosure, what I am referring to here is just an extension of the concept of GPP (General Physical Preparedness) and the first couple of micro cycles in classic periodization.  The difference is it is a highly specific adaptation of these concepts.  Its primary use is for the seasoned lifter/athlete who has developed an excellent strength base and plans to try something new, or something they have not done in a long time.  You see, the body’s adaptation to exercise is extremely specific.  For example, take a lifter who back squats, but never performs front squats with regularity.  The primary movers for both movements are the same, but the relative emphasis on them varies due to the changes in the location of the load and thus the movement of the body and joints.  The variation in movement is also dramatically different for the nervous system.

The variation in the movement pattern and thus variation in stress on the musculature and connective tissue can lead to injury if the more advanced athlete too quickly attempts maximal loads.  This is because the force production capacity of the involved musculature may exceed the mechanical stress absorbing capacity of the connective tissues for the specific movement pattern of the front squat, or any new, or not regularly used movement.  PML can address this by building the connective tissue for the specific movement pattern prior to the use the of maximal loads.

The basic principle of progression for this use of PML is similar to that used for injury repair, but differs in initial loading.  The initial loading will be significantly greater than that used for injury repair.  It will still be relatively light, but in this case the selected resistance should be heavy enough that it is difficult to complete 20 repetitions.  The frequency is also less, more akin to that of your normal training, and the progression of resistance can be faster, but should still cover four to five weeks prior to reaching loads of 90% or greater.

Savvy use of PML will lead to less injury, faster recovery if injury does occur, and the ability to more quickly progress in one’s strength or athletic training.  Give it try, you will not regret the decision.